Researches on human activities and their material evidence have occupied an important place in the agenda of many social disciplines. These studies are of an outstanding interest to the understanding of various aspects of people’ past and current life. As a whole, cover different temporal and spatial contexts, theoretical approaches, subjects, materials, etc. This paper presents a review of the main conceptualizations used in Anthropology, Archeology and, complementarily, Sociology and History, since the late 19th century. In particular, a theoretical revision of the notions of material culture, materiality, technology and related concepts, taking into account their similarities and differences, is exposed. Some issues of the process of conceptualization, the specificity of each discipline and the dynamics of communication between them are discussed, scenario from which the high potential that an interdisciplinary approach suppose is sighted.